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    Status of political psychology in Ukraine

    I.O. Bondarevskaya (Institute of Psychology, Kyiv)
    M.G. Tkalych (Zaporizhya State University, Zaporizhya)

    The introduction of the discipline of Political Psychology in the academic curricula.
    In Ukraine Political Psychology is understood as scientific discipline which spread as a result of politicization of psychology and psychologization of politics. At the same time it is considered to be a relatively independent constituent of the system of political sciences. The most general definition is the following: Political Psychology is the scientific field which study psychological mechanisms and regularities of definite persons’, groups’, masses’ and societies’ political awareness development and functioning; their behavior in political relations; it studies processes of political leadership, making political decisions; it works out technologies of politico-psychological influence.
    In Ukraine specialists in mass communications and public relations believe that Political Psychology is interesting because it can reply in particular to the following questions: what is the political portrait of a leader and a voter, which motives can be essential for a leader making this or that decision. Thus, Political Psychology is considered to have practical implementation which is also important.
    Ukrainian political scientist Bebik (1997) mentions that Political Psychology contains both realized (rational) and unrealized (irrational) elements. That is why it combines social interaction logics and logics of instincts, reflection (realized representation of reality) and reflex (unrealized form of thinking).
    At Ukrainian universities Political Psychology mostly often is taught during the fourth year of study on the bachelor’s level. This course is obligatory. General quantity of hours assigned for studying Political Psychology is 108, 56 of which are to be devoted to auditorium work and 56 to individual work.
    The main questions considered in the discipline “Political Psychology” are the following:
    1. History of development, subject and structure of Political Psychology. Place of Political Psychology in the system of political and psychological sciences.
    2. Political culture in the system of societal relations. Psychological mechanisms and regularities of personal political socialization.
    3. Psychology of political participation and electoral behavior.
    4. Politico-psychological aspects of social stratification. Psychological factors of political elites’ engender, evolution, and their interaction.
    5. Psychology of political power, development and functioning of domineering-submissive relations.
    6. Political leadership and its psychological characteristics. Psychological portrait of a politician.
    7. Psychological peculiarities of political activity and political opposition.
    8. Politico-psychological phenomena of mass awareness and behavior.
    9. Psychological preconditions of civil society principles establishment. Psychology of local community.
    10. Ethnopsychological aspects of politics.
    11. Psychological problems of institutionalization and development of group subjects (political parties, mass movements, etc.).
    12. Psychological mechanisms of political communication and political influence.
    13. Psychology of political destructiveness (aggression, violence, terrorism, etc.)
    14. Psychological factors of conflict emergence and ways of their reconciliation.
    15. Psychology of international relations and international politics.
    16. Comparative psychological analysis of politics in different countries. Politico-psychological aspects of globalization.
    17. Technologies of political situations, political activity, politician’s personality resources, political organizations psychodiagnosis.
    18. Psychotechnologies of political forecasting.
    19. Technologies of political companies’ psychological support, preparation and accompaniment of political action.
    20. Psychotechnologies of political image formation.
    21. Methodology of Political Psychology study in high school and postgraduate education. Teaching and training technologies in Political Psychology.
    Among tasks solved by Political Psychology as an academic discipline we can distinguish three main tasks which serve as corresponding functions.
    The first task is the understanding of psychological components in politics, awareness of “human factor” role in political processes. This task is connected with the analytical function of science (it enables people to orientate in political life choosing corresponding actions).
    The second task which is somehow built over the first one is forecasting of the following role of “human factor” and in general all psychological aspects of politics. This task is realized by means of prognostic function of science: it is not enough to understand the essence of phenomenon – it is necessary to predict its development.
    The third task which comes out of the previous ones is modification, change of phenomenon. This task is connected with the function of managerial and controlling influence on the political activity (it enables to realize intentions in certain political actions). It is not enough to understand, forecast – it is necessary to direct development in desirable direction.
    Consequently, the basis of Political Psychology is Psychology itself as a science of psychological reflection of reality in the process of life activity, inner world of a person, certain connections with outer world and possible way of person’s psyche development.
    Taking into account all above we can shape subject, object and methods of Political Psychology as an academic discipline.
    Subject of Political Psychology in general is politics as a specific human activity which has its peculiar structure, social subject and stimulating forces. Subject of Political Psychology is the corresponding psychological processes, states and characteristics of a person which are modified in the process of interaction with power (Golovaty, 2003).
    In western tradition subject of Political Psychology is psychological components of personal political behavior, which investigation and analysis enable to implement psychological knowledge in politics’ understanding.
    From the point of view of Soviet and post-Soviet psychologists, politics is to be analyzed in terms of general concept of social subject activity developed by Leont’ev (2005). If we are to consider inner structure, politics as an activity can be divided into separate actions, then actions – into separate operations. Activity in general corresponds to motive, actions correspond to separate certain goals, and operations correspond to tasks given in certain conditions. Thus politics as a type of activity correspond to generalized motive of human behavior management (its “optimization”). Certain political activities correspond to actions of different types: from negotiations to wars or rebels. Social subjects of politics as a type of activity can be separate individuals (e.g. politicians), small and big social groups, and spontaneous masses.
    The main object of politico-psychological studies is political participation, political leadership, political values and beliefs, motives which influence political behavior, political socialization, individual, group and mass political awareness. The whole variety of Political Psychology objects can be divided into three main spheres: psychology of inner politics, psychology of outer politics and international relations, and military-political psychology.
    In Political Psychology diagnostic, prognostic, consulting and corrective-developing methods are used.
    It is possible to distinguish at least six main peculiarities of Political Psychology as an academic science.
    1. Formation of Political Psychology in the process of citizens’ sociopolitical activity, their practical interaction with each other, with different social subjects, and power institutions.
    2. Reflection of political events and processes which has surface character. Political Psychology can not be perceived in a simple, unambiguous way without corresponding awareness.
    3. A domineering role of sensitive, emotional elements of consciousness instead of rational ones. That is why it is difficult to forecast political processes, predict their social meaning.
    4. Rapid and sensitive personal reaction on the change in political conditions, political situation. Such political mobility is characteristic for the majority of political subjects.
    5. Ambiguous influence of different ideologies on people, to be exact on Political Psychology formation, its existence in the process of ideological clash, ideological fight.
    6. Reflection of not perspective, future, but present, current interests and needs of people. That is why political processes are nearly always time determined.
    Political Psychology forms of display:
    • Political values, needs, interests, aspirations, hopes, will;
    • Political feelings, emotions, moods, thoughts, superstitions, illusions, myths:
    • Political habits, skills, traditions, dispositions;
    • Political suggestions, persuasions, imitations, rumors.
    Political Psychology has certain connections with other disciplines which have different effect on it, determine its state, following development and perspectives. Political Psychology obviously has a lot in common first of all with Psychology and in some respect with its derivatives (in particular with general, pedagogical, and ethnopsychology). It can be explained by the fact that the subject of study in Psychology is certain facts of psychological activity, psychological characteristics of a person (character, temperament, volitional qualities, etc.) namely, psychology studies facts, regularity, psyche mechanisms of people’s inner world.
    As far as Social Psychology is the discipline dealing with regularities of sociopsychological reality development, its structure, mechanisms of development and functioning, then Social Psychology is mostly connected to Political Psychology. Even stronger is the connection between Political Psychology and Political Sociology because its subject deals with the laws of interconnection between all structures and spheres of social activities with political, sociopolitical needs, interests, activities of individuals, social groups, ethnoses, their organizations and movements.
    Other disciplines are close to Political Psychology because of notional apparatus. Notional apparatus of Political Psychology is rather close to the one of Psychology, Philosophy, Political Science, etc. At the same time Political Psychology has very specific notions which peculiarities are determined by intellectually sensitive qualities. Exactly sensitive personal perception of political situation leads to so many illogical political actions in the history of politics and political activity.
    Thus, Political Psychology as an academic discipline is a relatively young branch of teaching process in higher teaching establishments, but at present the subject of the discipline is precisely shaped as well as its tasks, directions and methods of study in this sphere. The last at their turn need to be systematized and developed, as well as methodical supply of Political Psychology. On the level of teaching Political Psychology in higher teaching establishments we believe that it is perspective to unite theoretical and practical materials in this field.

    Reviews and publications in Political Psychology.
    Studies in the field of Political Psychology are reflected in scientific journals, newsletters, textbooks, monographs, and literature intended for wide public.
    Among scientific journals included in the list of Higher Attestation Commission the following need mentioning:
    • “Scientific Studies in Social and Political Psychology” (“Наукові студії із політичної та соціальної психології”) – edited by PhD S.D. Maksimenko, PhD M.M. Slyusarevsky;
    • “Problems of Political Psychology and its Role for Ukrainian Citizen Development” (“Проблеми політичної психології та ії роль у становленні громадянина України”) – edited by PhD M.M. Slyusarevsky, PhD V.O. Tatenko;
    • “Psychological Perspectives” (“Психологічні перспективи”) contains section in Political Psychology – edited by PhD M.M. Slyusarevsky, PhD V.O. Tatenko, PhD V.O. Vasyutinsky and other scientists;
    • “Social Psychology” (“Соціальна психологія”) contains section in Political Psychology – edited by U. Shaigorodsky and other scientists.
    Publications in “Scientific Studies in Social and Political Psychology” are devoted to vast majority of topics: methodology of Political and Social Psychology, development of personality in society, scientific-methodological basics of family psychological help, socio-psychological factors of Russian speaking inhabitants’ integration in modern Ukrainian society, group dynamics’ peculiarities in terms of higher education reformation, political socialization of young people, theoretical-methodological basics and practical potential of communicative cognitive psychology, socio-psychological basics of personal media culture formation, socio-psychological conditions of motivation and political activity skills formation among young people, psychotechnological components of mass awareness formation, theoretical and methodological basics of information influence consequences forecast on personal political attitudes, sociopolitical orientations dynamics among different socio-professional and age groups, scientific methodological basics how to monitor social situation of personal development and development of society.
    In scientific journal “Problems of Political Psychology and its Role for Ukrainian Citizen Development” papers devoted to psychoanalytical basics of socio-psychological problems, problems of personal psychosocial space safety, self-development and socialization in contemporary socio-political conditions are published.
    Institute of Social and Political Psychology on the basis of Ukrainian surveys published the following newsletters: “Media culture of Ukrainian inhabitants 2008” (edited by L.A. Naydyonova, O.P. Baryshpolets), “Political crisis and social awareness change 2007” (edited by M.M. Slyusarevsky), “Pre-election Ukraine: election intentions and inhabitants’ thoughts 2007” (edited by M.M. Slyusarevsky), “Beginning of new political year: citizens’ evaluations and their election intentions 2006” (edited by M.M. Slyusarevsky), “Hot political summer in the mirror of societal view 2006” (edited by M.M. Slyusarevsky), “Monitoring of socio-political situation in Ukraine 2005, 2006” (edited by M.M. Slyusarevsky), “Sociopolitical situation in Ukraine before political elections 2004” (edited by M.M. Slyusarevsky).
    In Ukraine a rage of books devoted to theoretical and practical issues of Political Psychology was published. We consider some of the most interesting from them below in chronological sequence.
    In the monograph “Psychology of mass political awareness and behavior” (“Психологія масової політичної свідомості та поведінки”, 1997) V.O. Vasyutinsky describes results of the study revealing Ukrainian citizens’ political awareness and behavior peculiarities. The author interprets problems of socio-psychological tension and multiparty system functioning.
    In the monograph “Ethnopolitical processes in the modern Ukraine” (“Етнополітичні процеси в сучасній Україні”, 1999) M. Piren shows psychological aspect of ethnos and nation, language as an ethnoforming component, interconnection between ethnicity and religion, and institute of family in the context of Ukrainian politics.
    The monograph “Peculiarities of youngsters’ socialization in terms of societal transformations” (“Особливості соціалізації молоді в умовах трансформації суспільства”, 2005) is devoted to the problem of personal socialization. Authors, G.M. Aver’yanova, N.M. Dembitska, V.V. Moskalenko, describe different models of socialization distinguishing economical, political, and gender role socialization. Factors forming personality traits which result from entrance to definite social institutions are analyzed. The monograph contains empirical material which proves main theoretical conclusions of authors.
    The monograph “Interactional psychology of power” (“Інтеракційна психологія влади”, 2005) is devoted to the search of socio-psychological sources of power. The author, V. Vasyutinsky, analyses processes of domineering-submissive relations construction, he substantiates its interactional-phenomenological nature. In the monograph such important aspects of power as psychological structure of power, individual subjectivity in symbolic-discursive space of interaction, socio-psychological parameters of inter-subjective interaction, cratological dimensions of personal onthogenesis, domineering-submissive aspects of gender interaction, interactional nature of politico-ideological existence.
    The monograph “Difficult youth: ways of self-realization” (“Проблемна молодь: шляхи самоздійснення”, 2007) written by B.P. Lazarenko is devoted to the investigation of regularities and socio-psychological mechanisms in education as well as difficult youth’s return to ordinary life. Modern approaches to effective prevention of negative phenomena in youth surrounding are analyzed. Special attention is given to the problem of drug addiction and HIV/AIDS spread.
    In the monograph “Social psychology of influence” (“Соціальна психологія впливу”, 2008) V. Tatenko shows the results of socio-psychological study of influence problem. Determinants and factors of being influential are regarded as well as different forms of influence, and variants of their combination. Special attention is paid to onto-psychological definition of influence nature.
    The monograph “Integration processes in society and political personal choice” (“Інтеграційні процеси в суспільстві та політичний вибір особистості”, 2008) shows the results of socio-psychological study concerning problems of political personal choice, socio-political awareness sphere and factors which determine its display in integration societal processes. The author, V.P. Kazmirenko, analyzes psychological mechanisms which provide for personal inclusion in social activity processes, social participation, socio-psychological identification. Integration processes in education system are described and their influence on political culture formation is studied. Much attention is paid for self-management and processes of youth’s societal activity development investigation. Results of complex empirical studies of mobilizing technologies implementation in youth political organizations are shown in this book.
    In the monograph “Psychosemantic analysis of political choice in Orange Revolution period” (“Психосемантический анализ политического выбора в период померанчевой революции”, 2008) the author, N.N. Teplyakov, shows the results of experimental studies which reconstructed political awareness of voters and their perception of such political leaders as V.A. Yuschenko, V.F. Yanukovich, Y.V. Timoshenko, L.D. Kuchma, S.V. Kivalov, V.V. Putin during Orange Revolution period. The author analyzes such topical psychological problems as political discourse, synergetic, socio-psychological, psychoanalytic, constructionist, psycho-synergetic, magic, etc. approaches and theories regarding transformation processes of political norms, values and attitudes, methodological basics of psycho-semantics, subjective semantic spaces and techniques of their construction. Phenomena of socio-cultural conflicts, legitimatization of social system and dialogue between political cultures are analyzed. Particular attention is paid for the phenomenon of Orange Revolution analysis.
    The manual “Technologies and methods of forecasting consequences of information influence on elder pupils’ political attitudes” (“Технології та методики прогнозування наслідків інформаційного впливу на політичні настановлення старшокласників”, 2008) introduces existing ways of personal attitudes investigation as well as ways to forecast information influence on them. Possibilities of expert investigations, methods of individual consciousness investigation, and some computer programs of text analysis are shown. The author, P.D. Frolov, suggests methods for experts’ competence assessment, investigation and monitoring of political attitudes dynamics, and methods to reveal people with heightened receptiveness to information influence.
    The textbook “Political Psychology” (“Політична психологія”, 2009) describes the phenomena of Political Psychology as not much studied and systematized in Ukraine scientific and practical discipline. The author, M.F. Golovaty, determines essence, subject, and goal of Political Psychology, its structure, peculiarities and forms of study. Psychological aspects of public opinion formation, political behavior and participation, peculiarities of national elite formation are analyzed. The textbook is aimed for students, teachers, researchers, and all those who want to gain deep knowledge in the sphere of Political Psychology and politics in general.
    As we can see more and more scientific and practical publications have appeared recently in Ukraine. These publications are devoted to different problems in the sphere of Political Psychology representing substantiated analysis of sociopolitical processes in modern Ukrainian psychological context.

    Relevant research studies and Ukrainian researchers who published in Political Psychology.
    During the last decades more and more research studies in the sphere of Political Psychology are conducted on Departments of Political Science, Sociology and Psychology in higher education establishments as well as in separate research centers. Studies conducted by Institute of Social and Political Psychology of Academy of Pedagogical Sciences (further Institute) has particular importance. The Institute was founded in 1996 by reorganization of Scientific center of Political Psychology. The Institute makes a significant contribution into development of research studies’ methodology in the sphere of Political Psychology.
    The range of scientific studies covers the following topics:
    • Theoretical and methodological basics of Social and Political Psychology;
    • Complex analysis of social situation connected to personal and civil development of children and young people;
    • Psychological mechanisms of personal socialization, enhancement of socio-adaptive abilities, personal development;
    • Group dynamics problems, interpersonal and intergroup relations;
    • State, regularities and development tendencies of mass consciousness and behaviour;
    • Sociopsychological conditions and factors of personal participation in political activities, preparation of young people for making conscious political choice;
    • Psychology of power and political leadership problems;
    • Socio-psychological aspects of mass communication, media education of young people, formation of psychological resistance to socially harmful information;
    • Technologies of socio-psychological consulting, forecasting of socio-political processes and influence on their change.
    The main scientific departments of the Institute are the following:
    • Laboratory of psycho-social and politico-psychological studies methodology,
    • Laboratory of Social Psychology of personality,
    • Laboratory of mass and community psychology,
    • Laboratory of small groups and intergroup relations psychology,
    • Laboratory of youth’s political socialization psychological problems,
    • Laboratory of fundamental and practical problems of communication,
    • Laboratory of mass communication and media education psychology,
    • Laboratory of political participation psychology,
    • Laboratory of socio-political technologies,
    • Laboratory of societal and political processes monitoring.
    Research activity of some from the above mentioned laboratories needs to be described more precisely in this paper.
    Laboratory of mass and community psychology is headed by PhD V.O. Vasyutinsky. The content of studies conducted in this laboratory include: mass political consciousness and behavior as the subjects of politico-psychological study (historical vision and present state of the problem); state and content of mass political consciousness in modern Ukraine (political attitudes’ and moods’ psycho-semantic characteristic of Ukrainian citizens, qualitative characteristics of politico-semantic space in modern Ukrainian society, problem of unconsciousness in personal attitude toward the state); socio-psychological tension in civil and political life (economical determinants and ideological factors of socio-psychological tension analysis, the problem of mass political consciousness and behaviour extremeness); socio-political aspects of political parties’ activity and multiparty system functioning (psychological studies of political parties activity, personal political engagement as individual-psychological basis of party functioning, psychological sources, world view and sensuous-volitional mechanisms of political ideology effect, psychological mechanisms of political unity, socio-psychological factors of multiparty system functioning).
    Laboratory of youth’s political socialization psychological problems is headed by PhD I.V. Zhadan. Researchers of this laboratory worked out a range of important topics. The topic “Psychological peculiarities of political culture formation among pupils and students in terms of education humanization” was being investigated during 1995 – 1996, 1999. Theoretical models which show possible forms of pupils’ and students’ political socialization were constructed by I.V. Zhadan. Forms and stages of pedagogical influences directed at intensification of the processes connected to democratic values and norms assimilation among pupils were determined. Main principles of politically colored information organization and presentation were formulated. L.N. Ovdienko substantiated the conclusion that in Ukraine school reformation directed at humanization based on the principles of tolerance, dialogue, and rejection from imperativeness can facilitate formation of youngsters’ political culture aimed at the best achievements of modern society. In the other study conducted by Y.O. Kotlyar main sociopsychological mechanisms of young people’s political culture formation were revealed. The researcher also analyzes possible ways of motivation to assimilate knowledge connected to political system and regularities of its function, determination of personal attitude toward political events. T.I. Belavina determined levels and forms of young people protest; she made a socio-political portrait of young people in transformation of socio-economic and political situation in Ukraine; stages of specific young peoples’ movements arise were described. T.O. Vol’fovs’ka studied the process which resulted in formation of diverse strategies of interaction in political dialogue as a way to construct youth’s political culture. The researcher determines evaluation criteria of personal communicative competence level.
    The research topic “Psychological principles of youth’s political education construction” was conducted during 2000-2003. Researchers investigated social expectations about political education at the stage of developing democracy in Ukraine. Main tasks and functions of political education were determined. Approaches to political education content formation were planed on different levels – fundamental, practical and mass. Psychological model of youth’s political education was constructed. It contained three units of political socialization psychological effects. The formation of these units should have been the target of political education content. The units were the following: cognitive (political representations), conative (experience of political activity), and affective (system of political attitudes). The main socio-psychological mechanisms of the system of political attitudes formation were determined: identification, tolerance, responsibility and social activeness. This model was oriented on citizen-aware function of political education support.
    Evaluation criteria of youth’s political education effectiveness were determined:
    • Personal behavior peculiarities (verbal loyalty to principles and actual behavior);
    • Beliefs (affective, cognitive and evaluative);
    • Motivation type (internal or external);
    • Personal values (particularism or universality);
    • Means and goals of political orientation and political participation.
    Complex of methods evaluating political education effectiveness were worked out, four of them enabled to evaluate: elder pupils’ peculiarities of political identification (O.M. Sknar), level of their political knowledge, tolerance level (I.V. Zadan), communicative orientation (T.O. Vol’fovs’ka).
    At present the laboratory employees are working at the topic: “Social teaching as youth’s political socialization in conditions of education system modernization”. The aim of the study is to investigate social teaching influence peculiarities on youth’s political socialization processes; working out technologies of political attitudes’ developing through modeling means application in political education.
    Laboratory of political participation psychology headed by PhD L.O. Kiyashko was working on the topic: “Socio-psychological factors of youth’s political participation intensification”. The aim of the study was to determine political participation level among different age and social categories of young people in modern conditions; investigation of influence factors on the political participation level in child and youth mass organizations. Directions of the study were the following: investigation of political participation level among different age and social categories of young people in modern conditions; determination of mechanisms of political participation and main factors of its intensification in child and youth mass organizations; development of effectiveness evaluation criteria and methods to forecast consequences of youth organizations’ activity, their influence on the level of youth’s political participation; determination of the influence of socio-ideological beliefs and stereotypes on civil and political youth activity; development of criteria, indicators, and methods evaluating child and youth organizations activity influence on personal attitudes toward active political participation formation; investigation of civil organization’s psychological climate influence on the formation youth’s readiness for socio-political participation; investigation of decision making peculiarities among young Ukrainian electors connected to participation in definite political movement: factor influencing on decision change; investigation of family influence on political participation readiness pre-conditions formation among children and young people; investigation of territorial communities’ self-organization as a socio-psychological factor of youth’s political participation intensification.
    Results of these studies were published in monographs, scientific journals, newsletters, textbooks and methodological manuals.

    Thus, corresponding to the analysis of Political Psychology as an academic discipline, relevant publications and scientific institutes in this sphere, we can distinguish perspectives of theoretical and practical elaborations which come from this context. The main conclusion from the analysis is the possibility to see and correlate different sides of Political Psychology development in Ukraine.
    Consequently, in Ukraine Political Psychology is at the developing stage and further scientific research activity should be done through the analysis of not only specific principles of modern Political Psychology but also through subject-content direction; and the most important vector is the one concerning modern societal practice which was practically absent during Soviet period. It becomes essential since the enhancing level of political awareness in Ukrainian society after 2004 is taken into account. In addition, it is actual to analyze theoretical and methodological levels of modern psycho-political works of practical direction which makes it possible to continue search of more definite and concentrated understanding of the Political Psychology subject among psychologists in the nearest future.
    Further systematization of the wide range of separated in time and in scientific principles works in the field of Political Psychology is considered to be perspective. The range of works spreads from prominent Ukrainian philosophers of the past to recent studies of Ukrainian political psychologists. It enables to construct a grounded understanding of methodological level in the field of modern Political Psychology, state of its present methodological equipment and shape the ways of further development both in theoretical and practical aspects.

    Авер’янова, Г.М., Дембицька, Н.М., Москаленко, В.В. (2005). Особливості соціалізації молоді в умовах трансформації суспільства. Київ: «ППП». [Aver’yanova, G.M., Dembitska, N.M., Moskalenko, V.V. (2005). Peculiarities of youngsters’ socialization in terms of societal transformations. Kyiv: “PPP”.]
    Бебик, В.М. (1997) Маркетинг і менеджмент виборчої компанії (методичні рекомендації). Київ. [Bebik, V.M. (1997). Marketing and management of pre-election company (methodological recommendations). Kyiv.]
    Васютинський, В.О. (1997). Психологія масової політичної свідомості та поведінки. Київ: ДОК-К. [Vasyutinsky, V.O. (1997). Psychology of mass political awareness and behavior. Kyiv: DOK-K.]
    Васютинський, В.О. (2005). Інтеракційна психологія влади. Киів: Вид-во Киів. славістичн. універ. [Vasyutinsky, V.O. (2005). Interactional psychology of power. Kyiv: Kyiv Slavic University Press.]
    Головатий, М.Ф. (2003). Соціологія політики: Навч. посіб. Київ: МАУП. [Golovaty, M.F. (2003). Sociology of politics: textbook. Kyiv: MAUP.]
    Головатий, М.Ф. (2009). Політична психологія: Навч. посіб. Київ: МАУП. [Golovaty, M.F. (2009). Political psychology: textbook. Kyiv: MAUP.]
    Казміренко, В.П. (2008). Інтеграційні процеси в суспільстві та політичний вибір особистості. Київ: Міленіум. [Kazmirenko, V.P. (2008) Integration processes in society and political personal choice. Kyiv: Milenium.]
    Лазаренко, Б.П. (2007). Проблемна молодь: шляхи самоздійснення. Київ: Пед. думка. [Lazarenko, B.P. (2007). Difficult youth: ways of self-realization. Kyiv: Ped. Dumka.]
    Леонтьев, А.Н. (2005). Деятельность. Сознание. Личность. Москва: Академия. [Leont’ev, A.N. (2005). Activity. Consciousness. Personality. Moscow: Academy.]
    Татенко, В.О. (2008). Соціальна психологія впливу. Київ: Міленіум. [Tatenko, V.O. (2008). Social psychology of influence. Kyiv: Milenium.]
    Тепляков, Н.Н. (2008). Психосемантический анализ политического выбора в период померанчевой революции. Одесса: Изд-во ТМСИ. [Teplyakov, N.N. (2008). Psychosemantic analysis of political choice in Orange Revolution period. Odessa: TMSI Press.]
    Пірен, М. (1999). Етнополітичні процеси в сучасній Україні. Київ: Вид-во УАДУ. [Piren, M. (1999). Ethnopolitical processes in the modern Ukraine. Kyiv: UADU Press.]
    Фролов, П.Д. (2008). Технології та методики прогнозування наслідків інформаційного впливу на політичні настановлення старшокласників. Київ: Міленіум. [Frolov, P.D. Technologies and methods of forecasting consequences of information influence on elder pupils’ political attitudes. Kyiv: Milenium.]